Results and Discussion Simple associations among the predictor variables are provided in Table 1.
Our results also suggest that personality factors explain why musically trained children tend to achieve higher grades than their untrained peers even when individual differences in IQ are held constant.
Our parsimonious proposal is that different individuals choose different activities including music lessons in contrast to the conventional view that music lessons make individuals different, or that music lessons serve as a mediating variable between pre-existing traits and cognitive functioning.
The effects on IQ and on academic performance were still observable in undergraduates that had been trained to play an instrument in childhood. They also raise questions about virtually all previously reported correlations between music training and cognitive abilities that failed to account for personality e.
Scores for each personality dimension represent the average rating of the relevant items.
In some cases, however, music interventions in childhood with random assignment cause improvements in language-related abilities, whether the interventions are long-term 9 months or more standard pedagogical approaches with children over 8 years of age Moreno et al.
Positive correlations between non-musical abilities and duration of music training or age at which music training began are similarly interpreted as evidence that music training causes these associations e. One of the most intriguing findings to date is that music training in childhood predicts academic achievement even when IQ is held constant Schellenberg,